The automotive industry is facing the challenge of offering customers new vehicles that are able to deliver significantly improved fuel economy and reduced carbon dioxide emissions, while at the same time maintaining affordability, performance and achieving the latest regulated emissions limits. The three-year ADEPT (advanced diesel-electric powertrain) project, including project partner the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium, set the target of developing and validating a range of advanced mild hybrid technologies with 48V ‘intelligent electrification’ utilising an advanced lead carbon UltraBattery®.
These targets have been applied to a Ford Focus project demonstrator which today, for the first time, will be made available for public ride and drive evaluation by delegates at the Low Carbon Vehicle event (LCV2016), at Millbrook, UK.
Key achievements of the ADEPT project have been to show that the integration of hybrid and emissions control systems in the manner envisaged by the project, can deliver a Euro 6b compliant package offering up to a 10-12 percent reduction in fuel consumption, equivalent to sub-80g/km of CO2 emissions (NEDC). It can also offer improved responsiveness and acceleration as a result of the increased full-load powertrain torque available through the hybrid systems.
According to the latest updated analysis of the potential cost of production implementation of ADEPT – conducted independently by Ricardo – the system would represent an incremental cost of in the region of €60 per gram/km of CO2 reduction. This is a result that makes the ADEPT powertrain architecture very competitive with other fuel economy solutions such as full hybridisation, where costs of implementation can be significantly higher. The ADEPT powertrain concept is also equally applicable – with appropriate fine tuning of design and configuration – to gasoline or alternatively fuelled powertrains.
Details of the configuration of the affordable ADEPT hybrid powertrain concept were revealed in late June together with the provisional results of vehicle testing. Today, these very positive results will be confirmed – and in the case of the Ricardo cost estimate for implementation, exceeded – in a presentation at the LCV2016 show, where delegates will be able to experience the performance of the ADEPT vehicle on the test track.
Alistair Davidson, of ALABC, added: “The excellent results of the ADEPT project clearly demonstrate that advanced lead-carbon batteries in 48V automotive applications are the most cost efficient way of meeting stringent future CO2 emission targets, when measured by the relevant test procedures for HEV operation.”
“The confirmation of the impressive results of the ADEPT project is a great achievement for the whole project team,” commented Ricardo Innovations MD Thomas Gutwald. “The concept of ‘intelligent electrification’ as exemplified in the ADEPT project is likely to enjoy mass-market appeal in the short to medium term, due to the fuel economy, performance and cost benefits that it brings.
“This concept – which is applicable with appropriate adaptation to gasoline, diesel or alternatively fuelled IC engine based powertrains – is thus a very attractive solution for both the consumer and automaker. It is also a fitting conclusion to the project that we are able to make the ADEPT vehicle available for a public ride and drive for the first time tomorrow at one of Europe’s major showcases for low carbon vehicle technology, LCV2016.”
For consortium partner and switched-reluctance motor-generator technology developer Controlled Power Technologies, 48V electrification is about harvesting and recycling kinetic and thermal energy, explains CPT’s founder and chief executive Nick Pascoe: “Our SpeedStart motor-generator, for example, which replaces the conventional alternator and starter-motor, can near instantaneously boost engine power and torque whenever required without having to feed additional fuel into the engine. So not only can we boost vehicle performance and fuel economy, but we can also improve air quality by reducing NOx and particulate emissions.
"While SpeedStart also recovers kinetic energy, our turbine integrated exhaust gas energy recovery system known as TIGERS simultaneously recovers thermal energy. Furthermore, 48V mild hybrid technology is equally applicable to trucks and buses, as well as off-road vehicles.”
The ADEPT project has been led by Ricardo in a research partnership that has included the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), Controlled Power Technologies (CPT), Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies UK Ltd, Ford Motor Company and the University of Nottingham. The research project was jointly funded by the UK Government’s Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) implemented through the UK innovation agency, Innovate UK, with matching contributions from the participating partners.
Notes to editors
Previously released details of the ADEPT powertrain architecture:
The baseline vehicle for the ADEPT research and development programme is based on an already downsized and competitively fuel-efficient diesel Ford Focus ECOnetic 1.5TDCi, homologated with carbon dioxide emissions of 88g/km.
Key features of the vehicle systems include CPT’s water-cooled SpeedStart switched reluctance belt starter generator (BSG), capable of delivering in excess of 12kW of regenerative braking, as well as near instantaneous and near continuous torque assist levels of over 7kW – sufficient to enable significant engine down-speeding in addition to a highly capable start-stop functionality.
Further energy recovery is achieved from CPT’s exhaust mounted 48V turbine integrated exhaust gas energy recovery system known as TIGERS. Rated at 2.4kW, TIGERS is capable of providing further power recuperated from the exhaust downstream of the turbocharger. The exhaust gas is diverted to the TIGERS unit via two bespoke emissions control valves developed by Faurecia Emissions Controls technologies for the ADEPT project. Again, the recovered energy is stored in the advanced lead-carbon battery pack, providing a high power, high endurance, easily recyclable, lithium-free energy storage solution at a competitive cost.
The ADEPT powertrain includes a range of electrical ancillaries powered from the 48V system rather than directly from the engine, including for example, the vehicle air conditioning compressor. In addition to powering these ancillaries and facilitating a significantly improved start-stop functionality, ADEPT’s 48V architecture also provides significant levels of torque assist from the BSG to offset fuelling to the engine for improved fuel economy, and to increase overall powertrain torque capability for enhanced vehicle performance.
The control strategies deployed have been developed based on extensive vehicle systems simulation work. This has enabled the core powertrain and aftertreatment system, as well as the 48V BSG, ancillaries, battery pack and exhaust energy recovery system, to be operated in a seamless manner, while also providing a valuable computer-aided engineering (CAE) capability to explore further potential avenues of development and optimization opened up through intelligent 48V electrification.
The ADEPT project partners:
Ricardo plc is a global, world-class, multi-industry consultancy for engineering, technology, project innovation and strategy. Our people are committed to providing outstanding value through quality engineering solutions focused on high efficiency, low emission, class-leading product innovation and robust strategic implementation. With a century of delivering excellence and value through technology, our client list includes the world's major transportation original equipment manufacturers, supply chain organizations, energy companies, financial institutions and governments. Guided by our corporate values of respect, integrity, creativity & innovation and passion, we enable our customers to achieve sustainable growth and commercial success. Ricardo is listed in the FTSE4Good Index, which identifies global companies that demonstrate strong environmental, social and governance (ESG) practices.
Controlled Power Technologies is an independent, clean-tech, company, based at Laindon in Essex and in Coventry in the West Midlands with subsidiaries in Germany and the USA, which specialises in the development of cost-effective CO2 reduction measures for the global automotive industry. Its core competencies include low voltage power electronics, advanced control software and the application of safe low voltage switched-reluctance machines (SRMs) to a vehicle powertrain and driveline, providing intelligent electrification of the propulsion system with near full hybrid vehicle capability. CPT is at the forefront of practical exploitation of SRM technology in vehicle applications and has already issued a number of patents in machine design and construction in the UK, Europe, USA, India, Korea and Japan.
Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) is an international research body comprised of lead producers, battery manufacturers, equipment suppliers, application developers, and research facilities organised to enhance the performance of lead batteries for a variety of markets, including hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. A program of the International Lead Association, ALABC pools the resources of its global membership in order to perform specific research on advanced lead batteries that otherwise would not be possible by any single entity.
The University of Nottingham has 43,000 students and is ‘the nearest Britain has to a truly global university, with a “distinct” approach to internationalisation, which rests on those full-scale campuses in China and Malaysia, as well as a large presence in its home city.’ (Times Good University Guide 2016). It is also one of the most popular universities in the UK among graduate employers and the winner of ‘Outstanding Support for Early Career Researchers’ at the Times Higher Education Awards 2015. It is ranked in the world’s top 75 by the QS World University Rankings 2015/16. More than 97% of research at The University of Nottingham is recognised internationally and it is 8th in the UK by research power according to the Research Excellence Framework 2014.
Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies (FECT) is one of the four divisions that comprise the Faurecia organisation, and is the global market leader in the supply of emissions control systems to the automotive Industry. With total sales of €7.4bn, FECT employs over 21,000 people in 25 countries including 1,900 engineers and technicians at its 7 global R&D facilities.
Innovate UK is the UK’s innovation agency. We are business focused and drive disruptive innovation right across the UK economy, funding and connecting pioneering businesses so they can create the products, processes and industries of the future. It is our mission to boost productivity, increase exports and help the UK economy grow head and shoulders above other nations.
ALABC: Bob Tolliday
International Lead Association
Tel: +44 (0)20 7833 8090
Ricardo: Anthony Smith
Ricardo Media Office
Tel: +44 (0)1273 382710
CPT: Rob Palmer
Tel: +44 (0) 1582 763255 / +44 (0)7768 242761
New 2017 Impact Report Puts Lead Batteries Among Top Five Performers
What do computers, lead batteries, household paper products, leafy vegetables and diapers have in common? … Continue Reading
EUROBAT, the Association of European Automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers, has has called for a '2030 Battery Strategy for Europe' and for greater co-ordination between … Continue Reading
What would the world look like without lead batteries? Today, February 18 is National Battery Day, and to increase awareness on lead batteries, Battery Council … Continue Reading
European regulation should support the non-ferrous metal industry to be globally competitive, otherwise more and more production and recycling will occur overseas, said … Continue Reading
Lead REACH Consortium has launched its new website - www.ila-reach.org
The new website has been developed by the Consortium Secretariat to improve and … Continue Reading
The lead battery industry has urged the European Commission to use its discretion to grant an Article 58(2) exemption from REACH authorisation for use of lead … Continue Reading
ALABC member and leading battery producer Johnson Controls International (JCI) recently announced an investment of $445 million to boost production of its absorbent glass mat … Continue Reading
The Cross-Industry Initiative (CII), an ad-hoc coalition of nearly 60 EU-wide, national organisations and companies, of which the Lead REACH Consortium is a partner, has … Continue Reading
Official recognition by the Oeko Institute that there is no mass market alternative to lead-based batteries for most automotive applications has been welcomed by a … Continue Reading
The International Lead Association (ILA) has welcomed calls for a smart energy revolution in the UK and highlighted the importance that lead batteries must play … Continue Reading
MAINZ, GERMANY (January 27, 2016) – Current mild-hybrid vehicle projects, in partnership with Ford and Hyundai/Kia, that utilize advanced 48V lead-carbon batteries, can reduce CO2 … Continue Reading
The International Lead Association (ILA) has welcomed the European Commission’s new Circular Economy package and has called on the EU to ensure other products match … Continue Reading
The U.S. Department of Energy has recently encouraged the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) to participate in the initial start-stop battery testing program of … Continue Reading
Lead batteries, used in vehicles and as energy storage for emergency power and renewable energy, have been confirmed as the most recycled product in the … Continue Reading
The danger of explosions caused by lithium-ion batteries getting into the lead-acid battery smelting process is putting at risk their efficient collection and recycling, according … Continue Reading
A new report by the International Council on Mining & Metals (ICMM) provides a comprehensive picture of how important mining is to economies across the … Continue Reading
The EU must continue to allow the use of lead-based batteries in vehicles as they are essential for the needs … Continue Reading
Michigan-based Advanced Battery Concepts has won an award from the Global Greentech Cluster Association (GCCA) for production of the world's first large-format, bipolar, sealed AGM, … Continue Reading
The European non-ferrous metals industry association, Eurometaux, has issued a series of recommendations to EU policymakers on how they can increase competitiveness and improve sustainaiblity.
Eurometaux, which … Continue Reading
A potential new use for lead could dramatically lower the cost and raise the efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells.
Using a compound called perovskite, which contains … Continue Reading
There would be a significant impact on the overall performance and cost of vehicles, plus an effect on targets for fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 … Continue Reading
An informative leaflet for installers of lead sheet, just published by the European Lead Sheet Industry Association (ELSIA), sets out how lead sheet installers can … Continue Reading
South Korean car manufacturer Kia has chosen to use lead-carbon batteries rather than lithium-ion batteries in its future range of cars.
Kia has claimed that the … Continue Reading
The European Lead Sheet Industry Association (ELSIA) is to be part of the technical secretariat that will work with the EU Commission to develop rules … Continue Reading
Following the world’s largest metal industry event, London Metal Exchange Week, industry experts are touting the future of lead and its vital role in modern … Continue Reading
Lead-based batteries are making important inroads into the market to supply batteries and energy storage systems for use in heavy-duty hybrid electric trucks.
Advanced Lead-Acid Battery … Continue Reading
A new leaflet illustrating why non-ferrous metals are crucial to achieving a sustainable society prominently features lead.
Lead-acid battery makers in Europe and North America have updated their voluntary blood lead mitigation programmes for employees of all their member companies.
In the announcement … Continue Reading
Three remote islands off the west coast of Scotland are relying for their power on lead-acid battery technology.
Electrochemist Dr David Rand, a lifelong researcher into lead-acid battery technology and an invaluable member of the ILA organising team for the European Lead Battery … Continue Reading
ILA member Teck Resources Limited, has been recognised as one of the Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations for 2013.
Launched in 2005 by … Continue Reading
Global demand for refined lead metal continues to show impressive growth according to industry forecasts.
Figures from the International Lead Zinc Study Group (ILZSG) confirm that … Continue Reading
Two important publications on mining’s contribution to sustainable development have been published by the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM).
The role of mining in … Continue Reading
The latest innovations and advances in lead-acid battery technology impressed delegates at the sell-out 13th European Lead Battery Conference, in Paris, last week.
Among the conference … Continue Reading
The Lead Sheet Association (LSA), an ILA Associate Member, has produced a short film promoting the benefits of using lead sheet in building projects.
The Doe Run Company has received the Grand Award for Publication Excellence from The Business Communications Report for its “Leading Change” sustainability report. Doe Run’s … Continue Reading
A facility, using lead carbon UltraBattery technology, providing three megawatts of power to homes in eastern USA has been launched. ILA member East Penn Manufacturing Co., … Continue Reading
The Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium has reported on new research by Lux which predicts that micro-hybrid engine technology will grow nearly eight-fold to 39 … Continue Reading
Global lead use exceeded 10 million tonnes for the first time ever in 2011, according to the International Lead and Zinc Study Group (ILZSG).
The ILZSG, … Continue Reading
London’s Heathrow Airport has recently unveiled its new driverless, electric pods used to ferry passengers between the Terminal 5 business car park and the main … Continue Reading